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Polish Mutual Benefit and Friendly Society
BRANTFORD POLISH HALL, 154 Pearl St. BRANTFORD, ON.
519-753-0414

The Coat of Arms of Poland
The Coat of Arms of Poland consists of a White Eagle on a red shield. The Eagle is wearing a crown. In Poland, the Coat of Arms is usually called simply White Eagle (Orzeł Biały), and it is always capitalized. MORE...
Flag of Poland

Polish School
Our Polish School is a wonderful place for all kids (grand kids) to learn Polish language and traditions. Our students are children from Polish and “mixed” families. The school teaches literacy skills in Polish (reading and writing) and offers a solid grounding in Polish history, culture, and traditions. The classes are age appropriate, the atmosphere is very friendly and warm. We invite all parents and grandparents to enroll their children in our school program and join us. The more the merrier!

Click here to learn Polish Proverbs
Learn Polish Proverbs, they are available in Polish and English language.

Browse our collection of Polish Recipes, some of them are original from Old Country and some of them are influenced by Canadian and other International blend...

Find great selection of online Fairy Tales for your kids and read them for free.

We have just the right place for your next Super Bowl Party, Soccer Party or any other Theme Night. Affordable rental for your entertainment needs. Please CLICK HERE for more info.

Dart Leagues
Get on a team NOW!
Become part of dart or pool leagues, organize your own game or league, rent game room for social, family or corporate games or just come out and have a good time. We feature great food, friendly atmosphere and fully stocked bar when you need to relax. Click on the image for info.

Photo Gallery

Business Directory
Advertise your business in our Business Directory...
CLICK HERE for more info.

 

About Poland

Click here for map of Poland with provinces

The Republic of Poland, a country in Central Europe, lies between Germany (456 km) to the west, the Czech Republic (658 km) and Slovakia (444 km) to the south, Ukraine (526 km) and Belarus (407 km) to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania (91 km) and Russia - Kaliningrad Oblast exclave (206 km) to the north.

Poland's official name in Polish is Rzeczpospolita Polska. Poland belongs to medium size countries (by size 9th place in Europe and the 63th in the world) and covers total area of 312,685 sq. km (Land: 304,465 sq. km; Water: 8,220 sq. km; Coastline: 491 km; Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border; lowest elevation point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m; highest elevation point: Rysy 2,499 m). The longest Polish river, the Vistula (1,047 km), runs through the centre of the country.

Administrative divisions: 

Poland has 16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lodzkie, Lubelskie, Lubuskie, Malopolskie, Mazowieckie, Opolskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Pomorskie, Slaskie, Swietokrzyskie, Warminsko-Mazurskie, Wielkopolskie, Zachodniopomorskie.

Population:

The country has some 38,536,869 (July 2006 est.) inhabitants placing it seventh in Europe and 25th in the world. In European terms, Poland is a country of average population density - 123 persons per square kilometer. A dozen or so million Poles and people of Polish origin live outside Poland, including the bigger groups in the United States, Brazil, France, Canada, Germany, Belarus, Lithuania, the Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, and the Czech Republic.

National minorities (Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Ukrainian, Jewish) account for 2 to 3% of the country's overall population. 

Capital City: Warsaw and its largest city. It is located on the Vistula river roughly 350 km from both the Baltic coast and the Carpathian Mountains. Its population as of 2004 was estimated at 1,676,600, with an urban agglomeration of approximately 2,400,000. 

Warshawis also also the capital of Masovian Voivodship, is home to many industries (manufacturing, steel, electrical engineering, automotive industry), comprises 66 higher learning institutions incl. (Warsaw University, Warsaw University of Technology, Higher School of Business and Medical Academy) and over 30 Theaters incl. the National Theatre and Opera and the Philharmonic National Orchestra.

Most Polish people (62%) live in towns. The biggest of them are: Warsaw (1,676,600 inhabitants), Lodz (842,000), Cracow (751,000), Wroclaw (644,000), Poznan (589,000), Gdansk (467,000), Szczecin (415,000), Bydgoszcz (384,000), Katowice (366,000) and Lublin (352,000).

There are 124 institutions of higher learning in Poland with the total number of students in the range of 495,000. Most of them, nearly 180,000, study at various university departments. There are more than 100,000 students of technical universities. Higher school of pedagogic, agriculture and medical academies are further down the list. It is worth noting that the Cracow Academy established in 1364 was the first Polish institution of higher learning and one of the oldest universities in Europe. 

Government and Related:

The supreme legislative organ of state authority in Poland is the bi-cameral parliament composed of the Sejm and the Senate elected for a four-year term. There are 460 MPs and 100 Senators.

The President elected in a general ballot for the period of five years is the head of state.

The supreme executive organ of state authority is the Council of Ministers (the Government), headed by the Prime Minister.

Government Executive Branch:

Chief Of State: President Lech KACZYNSKI (since 23 December 2005)
Head Of Government: Prime Minister Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI (since 10 July 2006);
Deputy Prime Ministers: Ludwik DORN (since 23 November 2005), Roman GIERTYCH (since 5 May 2006), Zyta GILOWSKA (since 22 September 2006)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 9 and 23 October 2005 (next to be held October 2010); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm

Two national holidays are celebrated in Poland in an especially festive way: May 3 (the anniversary of the adoption of Europe's first, and the second in the world Constitution on May 3, 1791) and November 11 (Independence Day).

The origins of the names of the country, Polska, and of the nationality, the Poles, remain unclear. A common opinion holds that the name Polska comes from the Polanes tribe who established the Polish state in the 10th century (Greater Poland). Their name may derive from the Slavic word pole (field), or it may come from the tribal name Goplanie - people living around Lake Goplo - the cradle of Poland mentioned as Glopeani having 400 strongholds circa 845. Conventional etymology of the ethnic name of the Poles relates it more widely to the Polish Polanie, "dwellers of the field"; pol, "field".

Poland's location and accessible terrain has meant that the land has seen many wars fought over it, and its borders have shifted considerably over the centuries.

Poland is an ancient nation that was conceived near the middle of the 10th century. Its golden age occurred in the 16th century. During the following century, the strengthening of the gentry and internal disorders weakened the nation. In a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland amongst themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe, but Poland still faces the lingering challenges of high unemployment, underdeveloped and dilapidated infrastructure. Solidarity suffered a major defeat in the 2001 parliamentary elections when it failed to elect a single deputy to the lower house of Parliament, and the new leaders of the Solidarity Trade Union subsequently pledged to reduce the Trade Union's political role. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations. 

Climate: 

Poland has a temperate climate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation, not very frosty, only in the north-eastern region temperatures drop below -20 degrees C; the first spring buds and leaves usually appear early in April; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers, and the recently increasingly dry summers are warm and sometimes even hot (record +38 degrees C); greenery become yellow, golden, red, then fall in October and November. The average annual rainfall is about 600 mm.

Natural hazards: flooding 

Browse Related Links:

Poland Official Site from the Polish Government

KPRM - Official Prime Ministerial Site

Prezydent - Official Presidential Site

Senat - Official site of the Senate

Sejm - Official site of the Sejm

Trybunal Konstytucyjny - Official site of the Constitutional Tribunal

Sad Najwyzszy - Official site of the Supreme Court

The Coat of Arms of Poland

The Flag Of Poland

Polish Traditions

Polish History

Polish Proverbs

Poland Tourism Information Portal

Weather in Poland

Information About Poland From The CIA Factbook

Poland - From Wikipedia

Onet Web Portal

Wirtualna Polska

Interia Web Portal

Gazeta Wyborcza


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